It is described as the abnormal growth of cells which has the potential to invade different parts of the body.These growth is called as tumour cells or cancer cells.These cells have the capacity to infiltrate the normal cells and cause cancer.There are various causes and treatment to cure cancer.
Here are the causes of cancer
Cancer risk factors can be divided into the following groups:
- Biological factors, such as age, gender, genetic defects and type of skin.
- Environmental exposure to UV radiation, and fine particulate matter.
- Occupational risk factors,such as carcinogens, asbestos and radioactive substances.
- Use of tobacco.
- Consumption of alcohol.
- Exposure to UV radiation from sunlight.
- some factors related to food which may include substances like nitrites and poly aromatic hydrocarbons which is usually produced by barbecuing food.
Factors related to work and living environments include:
- Presence of asbestos fibres.
- Exposure to tar and pitch.
- Exposure to polynuclear hydrocarbons (e.g. benzopyrene).
- Exposure to Some metal compounds.
- Contact with Some plastic chemicals (e.g. Vinyl chloride).
Bacteria and viruses
- Contact with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori leads to gastritis).
- Contact with HBV (hepatitis viruses cause hepatitis).
- Exposure to HPV (human papilloma virus,which leads to changes in cells ).
- Exposure to EBV (Epstein-Barr virus causes inflammation in the throat lymphoid)
- Exposure to radiation which are ionising(e.g. X-ray radiation).
- Contact with the radiation which are not ionised (e.g. ultraviolet radiation).
- Certain antineoplastic agents can cause cancer.
- Certain hormones can lead to cancer.
- Medicines that cause deficiency to the immune system can also be a reason for cancer.
- Bringing disease under control
- Recurrence of cancer can be prevented
Cancer treatment usually involves combination therapy. Combination therapy is referred to the combined use of many treatments such as surgery, drugs radiotherapy and . The purpose is to increase the scope for recovery of the patient
Adjuvant therapy is often used to supplement the surgery. Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy which are provided after surgery are the forms of the adjuvant therapy. Adjuvant therapy makes sure that cancer cells are destroyed, hence improving the patient’s condition.
Supportive therapy mainly alleviates symptoms that are caused by the cancer or the cancer treatment. Patient’s well being can be improved during the course of treatment and after the treatment. For example the anti-nausea treatment given during the chemotherapy is a kind of supportive therapy. Cancer treatment for pain is also another form of supportive therapy.
Palliative care improves the patient’s psychological and physical symptoms giving a quality life. Palliative care is used in the treatment of cancer treatment. This type of treatment can be given for months or years.
The common symptoms treated are pain, nausea, and fatigue . Palliative care is provided along with curative treatment is provided after cancer diagnosis.If cancer cannot be cured then the focus is to improve their quality of life. The procedures followed in symptomatic therapy may same as curative treatment. These are the few treatments for cancer.