Urinary tract infections are very common in women, they often recur, and can lead to complications such as an extension of the infection, or even irreversible kidney damage.
This genital colonization may be due to the alteration of the normal vaginal microflora due to the ingestion of antibiotics, other genital infections, or the use of certain contraceptives such as spermicides, as well as friction in the urethra during intercourse. These are, in short, some of the most common causes of urinary tract infections:
- Sex and sexual activity: The intercourse propitiates the introduction of bacteria in the bladder and is temporarily associated with the onset of cystitis. In addition, it should be noted that urination after intercourse decreases the risk of cystitis because it can promote the elimination of bacteria introduced during intercourse. Likewise, the use of spermicidal compounds with a diaphragm, or condoms covered with spermicide, modifies the normal bacterial flora of the genitourinary zone and has been associated with an increase in urinary tract infections.
- Pregnancy: urinary infections are detected in 2-8% of pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women are more susceptible to high urinary infections, because the ureters are more relaxed and move less, among other things.
- Obstruction: Any obstacle that interferes with the flow of urine (tumor, narrowing, and enlargement of the prostate, stones, etc.) increases the frequency of infections.
- Vesicoureteral reflux: is defined as the passage of urine from the bladder to the ureters and, sometimes, to the kidney, and occurs when urinating or when the pressure of the bladder rises. Reflux is common in children with anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract or in those with normal but infected pathways.
- Genetic factors: it has been shown that women who have suffered recurrent infections have more cases of a maternal history of UTI than women who have not had them.
A person suffering from a urinary infection should ensure good hydration; you have to drink water, as it can help prevent cystitis, because the urine stream expels many bacteria from the bladder, and the body’s natural defenses, as long as they are in good condition (there is no immunosuppression as in diseases Chronic diseases such as diabetes or due to taking medications such as antibiotics), eliminate the remaining bacteria.
Sometimes analgesics are required, although effective antibiotic treatment quickly controls the dysuria (painful urination) caused by the infection.
In pregnant women, tests are carried out during pregnancy at the first prenatal visit, and they are repeated at 28 weeks if there is a history of recurrent UTIs. In addition, it must be borne in mind that all bacteriuria should be treated in pregnant women with a duration between seven and 10 days of treatment.
In urinary tract infections, regardless of the type, the doctor will assess the drug necessary for their treatment. If the cause is bacterial, an antibiotic will be prescribed. If the cause of the infection is a fungus, an antifungal agent will be prescribed, and if it is a virus, an antiviral will be prescribed.
Normally urinary tract infections are controlled on an outpatient basis, and the prescribed medication is taken orally at home (treatment time is usually less than two weeks, but it depends on the type of infection, the causative organism, and the drug chosen by the patient. the doctor), but if there are complications or the infection is advanced, hospital admission may be necessary.